Essay 26 January 1950 Snow


Insights Daily Current Affairs, 26 January 2018


Paper 2:

Topic: Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

 

Republic Day 2018

India is celebrating its 69th Republic Day this year. Republic day in India is celebrated every year on 26th of January to honour the Constitution of India as it came into force on the same day in the year 1950.

In a first, the Republic Day celebrations will have 10 chief guests. The heads the ASEAN leaders from Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos and Brunei – will be hosted in this year’s celebrations. The significance of the ASEAN leaders attending the event is that ASEAN completes 50 years of formation and that India completes 25 years of its partnership with the grouping.

 

Why January 26th?

The Constitution came into effect on January 26, 1950, a date specially chosen to coincide with the anniversary of ‘Purna Swaraj Diwas’. January 26, 1930 was marked as ‘Purna Swaraj Diwas’, or the day the nation would attain complete freedom from its colonisers by the Congress.

The members of the drafting committee felt that the birth of the constitution should be observed on a day that held some significance in their fight for independence. When India was ultimately granted freedom by the British in 1947, but on August 15 and not January 26, the date was instead assigned to celebrating India’s Republic Day.

This was the day the Indian Independence Act was consequently repealed and India was established as a democratic republic, no longer a dominion of the British Crown.

 

Sources: pib.


Topic: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

 

National Voters Day

Context: The Election Commission of India celebrated the 8th National Voters Day on January 25th.

Theme: This year’s celebrations revolved around the theme ‘Accessible Elections’, which expressed ECI’s pursuit of working towards making the electoral process more inclusive and friendly for Persons with Disabilities (PwDs).

VoICE India: on the occasion, the President also inaugurated the first edition of VoICE India – a biannual magazine which brings forth best practices, innovations and knowledge derived from practical experience and success stories of the election machinery that exists in every corner of India.

 

National Voters’ Day:

National Voters’ Day or Rashtriya Matdata Diwas is celebrated on January 25 every year with an aim to encourage youngsters, who have reached the age of 18, to participate in the electoral process. The National Voters’ Day is celebrated at all polling stations across the country to mark the importance of voting.

The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for administering election processes in the country and administers elections to the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, state legislatures and the offices of the President and Vice President in India. It was on January 25, 1950 that the Election Commission of India was established.

 

Sources: pib.


Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

 

Shram Awards

 

Context: The Government has announced the Prime Minister’s Shram Awards for the year 2016 to be awarded to 50 workers employed in the Departmental Undertakings & Public Sector Undertakings of the Central and State Governments and Private Sector Units employing 500 or more workers.

The awards are given in recognition of their distinguished performances, innovative abilities, outstanding contribution in the field of productivity and exhibition of exceptional courage and presence of mind.

 

About Shram Awards:

The Prime Minister’s Shram Awards were instituted in 1985 by the Government of India. This national award is conferred on workers for outstanding contributions that improve productivity, innovation, and indigenization, resulting in saving foreign exchange. The award is also given for long-term exceptional dedicated work.

The objective of the Prime Ministers Shram Awards is to recognize the outstanding contributions made by workmen as defined in the Industrial Dispute Act, 1947 in organizations both in public and private sector and who have distinguished record of performance, devotion to duty of a high order, specific contribution in the field of productivity and proven innovative abilities among others.

 

There are four types of awards:

  • Shram Ratna: Rs. Two lakhs and recognition of their contribution to their field (a Sanad).
  • Shram Bhushan: RS. 100000 and a Sanad.
  • Shram Vir / Shram Veerangana: RS. 60000 and a Sanad.
  • Shram Devi / Shram Shree: RS. 40000 and a Sanad.

 

Sources: pib.


Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

 

Delhi Declaration

Context: Delhi declaration was adopted at the recently concluded ASEAN-India Commemorative Summit. ASEAN-India Commemorative Summit was held to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the establishment of sectoral dialogue between two sides.

 

Highlights of the Delhi declaration:

The Declaration supports a common approach to counter terrorism and sought a “comprehensive approach to combat terrorism through close cooperation by disrupting and countering terrorists, terrorist groups and networks, including by countering cross border movement of terrorists and foreign terrorist fighters and misuse of Internet including social media by terror entities.”

The declaration urges countries to strengthen cooperation and collaboration in combating other transnational crimes, including people smuggling, trafficking in persons, illicit drug trafficking, cybercrime, and piracy and armed robbery against ships.

The Delhi Declaration also reaffirmed “the importance of maintaining and promoting peace, stability, maritime safety and security, freedom of navigation and overflight in the region, and other lawful uses of the seas and unimpeded lawful maritime commerce and to promote peaceful resolutions of disputes, in accordance with UNCLO”.

 

Background:

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or ASEAN, was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the Founding Fathers of ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. At present there are 10 members namely, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam.

The motto of ASEAN is “One Vision, One Identity, One Community”.

 

Sources: the hindu.


Paper 3:

Topic: infrastructure.

 

Zojila tunnel

Context: An MoU has been signed between National Highways and Infrastructure Development Corporation (NHIDCL) under the Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, and M/S IL&FS Transportation Networks Ltd for construction of the Zojila Tunnel in Jammu & Kashmir.

 

About the Zojila pass tunnel:

What is it? It is a 14.2-km long tunnel project in Jammu and Kashmir to provide all-weather connectivity between Srinagar, Kargil and Leh, which remains cut-off from the rest of India during winters due to heavy snowfall. “Zojila tunnel will be the longest bi-directional tunnel in Asia.

Implementation: The project will be implemented by the ministry of road transport and highways (MoRT&H) through the National Highways and Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited (NHIDCL).

Benefits of the tunnel: The project would enhance the safety of travellers crossing Zojila Pass and reduce the travel time from 3.5 hours to 15 minutes. This pass is most strategic for the entire Kargil sector which has seen intrusion and war in the past. It will further increase the employment potential for the local labourers for the project activities.

 

Facts for Prelims: Zojila pass is situated at an altitude of 11,578 feet on Srinagar-Kargil-Leh National Highway which remains closed during winters (December to April) due to heavy snowfall and avalanches cutting off Leh-Ladakh region from Kashmir.

 

Sources: pib.


Topic: Awareness in space.

 

Global-Scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD)

Context: NASA’s Global-Scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) instrument was recently launched atop an Ariane 5 rocket.

 

About Global-Scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD):

What is it? GOLD is essentially an imaging spectrograph. Spectrographs are scientific instruments that have been designed to break light down into its constituent wavelengths and to measure their intensity. By examining the data from such an instrument, scientists can determine a wide variety of characteristics, including a target’s composition and temperature. GOLD will be tasked with collecting far ultraviolet light data on Earth’s atmosphere.

Mission: To shed light on how the uppermost layers of Earth’s atmosphere can be affected by powerful space and Earth-based weather events.

Focus: GOLD will focus its attention on a relatively poorly-understood region of the upper atmosphere, where the charged particles of the ionosphere mingle with the diffuse neutral gasses that make up the thermosphere.

 

Background:

Earth’s atmosphere is a complex, multi-layered protective shell that envelopes our planet, and safeguards its inhabitants from dangerous space weather emanating largely from our Sun. This tenuous region of the atmosphere has been known to undergo swift and significant changes in less than an hour. These fluctuations can be driven by the constant interactions between the ionosphere and thermosphere, in conjunction with weather emanating from both Earth and space.

The complexity of these interactions makes it very difficult to predict when an atmospheric change in the ionosphere and thermosphere will occur, and this can be a serious problem for satellite communications. Disturbances in the ionosphere can interfere with, or even block signals being sent between Earth-based systems and orbital probes, potentially affecting cell-phone communications, and other vital services such as GPS, which is needed to safely navigate airplanes and ships.

 

Sources: et.


Topic: cybersecurity.

 

Global Centre for Cybersecurity

 

Context: In a bid to safeguard the world from hackers and growing data breaches — especially from nation-states — the World Economic Forum (WEF) has announced a new Global Centre for Cybersecurity.

 

About the Global Centre for Cybersecurity:

The Global Centre for Cybersecurity will help build a safe and secure global cyberspace. The centre will be based in Geneva, Switzerland, and will function as an autonomous organization under the auspices of the World Economic Forum.

  • The aim of the centre is to establish the first global platform for governments, businesses, experts and law enforcement agencies to collaborate on cybersecurity challenges.
  • The centre will draw on the Forum’s government and industry support to work towards a more secure cyberspace through its established multistakeholder approach.

 

The centre will focus on the following aims:

  • Consolidating existing cybersecurity initiatives of the World Economic Forum.
  • Establishing an independent library of cyber best practices.
  • Helping partners to enhance knowledge on cybersecurity.
  • Working towards an appropriate and agile regulatory framework on cybersecurity.
  • Serving as a laboratory and early-warning think tank for future cybersecurity scenarios.

 

Way ahead:

As a truly borderless problem, cyber-attacks are surpassing the capacities and institutions that are currently dealing with this threat in an isolated manner. Only through collaboration, information exchange and common standards can the global community successfully counter organized digital crime.

 

Sources: the hindu.

 


Facts for Prelims:

 

Padma awards:

This year the President of India has approved conferment of 85 Padma Awards including two duo cases. The list comprises 3 Padma Vibhushan, 9 Padma Bhushan and 73 Padma Shri Awards.

 

About Padma Awards:

Padma Awards – one of the highest civilian Awards of the country, are conferred in three categories, namely, Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri. They were instituted in the year 1954. The Awards are given in various disciplines/ fields of activities, viz.- art, social work, public affairs, science and engineering, trade and industry, medicine, literature and education, sports, civil service, etc.

 

Categories:

  • Padma Vibhushan is awarded for exceptional and distinguished service;( it is a second degree honour).
  • Padma Bhushan is awarded for distinguished service of high order. (it is a third degree honour).
  • Padma Shri is awarded for distinguished service in any field. (it is a fourth degree honour).

The awards are announced on the occasion of Republic Day every year. The award is normally not conferred posthumously. However, in highly deserving cases, the Government could consider giving an award posthumously if the demise of the person proposed to be honoured has been recent, say within a period of one year preceding the Republic Day on which it is proposed to announce the award.

 

First India-designed vaccine passes WHO test:

For the first time, the Rotavac, a vaccine conceived and developed from scratch in India, has been “pre-qualified” by the World Health Organisation. To be “pre-qualified” means that the vaccine can be sold internationally to several countries in Africa and South America.

The Rotavac vaccine is developed by the Hyderabad-based Bharat Biotech Limited. It has been included in India’s national immunisation programme. The Rotavac vaccine protects against childhood diarrhoea caused by the rotavirus.

 

 

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The following events occurred in January 1950:

Contents

  • 1January 1, 1950 (Sunday)
  • 2January 2, 1950 (Monday)
  • 3January 3, 1950 (Tuesday)
  • 4January 4, 1950 (Wednesday)
  • 5January 5, 1950 (Thursday)
  • 6January 6, 1950 (Friday)
  • 7January 7, 1950 (Saturday)
  • 8January 8, 1950 (Sunday)
  • 9January 9, 1950 (Monday)
  • 10January 10, 1950 (Tuesday)
  • 11January 11, 1950 (Wednesday)
  • 12January 12, 1950 (Thursday)
  • 13January 13, 1950 (Friday)
  • 14January 14, 1950 (Saturday)
  • 15January 15, 1950 (Sunday)
  • 16January 16, 1950 (Monday)
  • 17January 17, 1950 (Tuesday)
  • 18January 18, 1950 (Wednesday)
  • 19January 19, 1950 (Thursday)
  • 20January 20, 1950 (Friday)
  • 21January 21, 1950 (Saturday)
  • 22January 22, 1950 (Sunday)
  • 23January 23, 1950 (Monday)
  • 24January 24, 1950 (Tuesday)
  • 25January 25, 1950 (Wednesday)
  • 26January 26, 1950 (Thursday)
  • 27January 27, 1950 (Friday)
  • 28January 28, 1950 (Saturday)
  • 29January 29, 1950 (Sunday)
  • 30January 30, 1950 (Monday)
  • 31January 31, 1950 (Tuesday)
  • 32References

January 1, 1950 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The International Police Association (IPA), largest police organization in the world, was formed. One of the few organizations with a slogan in Esperanto, the IPA's motto is Servo per Amikeco (Service through Friendship). It claims 380,000 members in 63 nations.[1]
  • The U.S. social security payroll tax was increased by half, as the amount deducted was given an automatic increase from 1% to 1.5%, the first increase since the payroll deductions had started in 1935.[2]
  • In 1954, it was decided that starting from January 1, 1950, Radiocarbon Dating could not be relied upon due to atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons resulting in a change of the Carbon level from Carbon-14 to Carbon-12. Calibration Curves were first established in this year, and so any time before January 1, 1950, is referred to as BP, or Before Present. Any Radiocarbon dating after this may not be accurately reliable.[3][4]

January 2, 1950 (Monday)[edit]

  • The 1949 college football season was completed as the post-season bowl games were played on the day after New Year's Day (since January 1 had fallen on Sunday). In the Rose Bowl, previously unbeaten (10-0-0) #3 California was upset by #6 Ohio State before a crowd of 100,963[5] Unbeaten (10-0-0) #2 Oklahoma won 35-0 over #9 LSU in the Sugar Bowl. The other two unbeaten college teams of 1949, #1 Notre Dame and #4 Army, did not play in a bowl game.[6] The final AP and UPI polls had already been taken prior to the bowl games, with Notre Dame being the unofficial national champion.
  • Born:David Shifrin, American clarinet artist
  • Died:Emil Jannings (Theodor Emil Janenz), 65, Swiss-born film star, winner of the first (1929) Academy Award for Best Actor, and later the star of German propaganda films

January 3, 1950 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Egypt held elections for its Chamber of Deputies, with the Wafdist Party winning a majority, taking 161 of 319 seats. The Saadist Party, led by former Prime Minister Ibrahim Abdel Hadi Pasha, lost in a landslide, going from control to winning only 24 seats.[7]Mustafa el-Nahhas became the new Premier on January 12, and would remain in power until January 27, 1952.[8]
  • Born:Victoria Principal, American TV actress and entrepreneur, at the USAF base in Fukuoka, Japan

January 4, 1950 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Truman delivered his State of the Union address to Congress and asked for a tax increase, with "changes in our tax system which will reduce present inequities, stimulate business activity, and yield a moderate amount of additional revenue".[9]
  • The New York Sun, which had published every afternoon since 1833, had its final issue. The operation was bought by the rival evening paper, the New York World-Telegram.[10]
  • The city of Town and Country, Missouri, with 162 wealthy residents, was incorporated as a village at the site of a defunct farming town Altheim, near St. Louis. Incorporation was granted by the St. Louis County Court after 102 people had signed a petition two months earlier. [11] The move came following concerns that either of two neighboring towns south of the area (Des Peres) and east (Frontenac) would attempt an annexation. [12]. In 1974, voters would approve the village's transformation into a fourth-class city. Town and Country would have over 11,000 residents by 2018
  • Died:George P. Putnam, 62, American publisher who had been the widow of husband of Amelia Earhart when she disappeared in 1937. After she was declared dead in 1939, Putnam, who had been the high bidder for Charles Lindbergh's autobiography, remarried twice.[13]

January 5, 1950 (Thursday)[edit]

  • President Truman said in a press conference that "The United States government will not pursue a course which will lead to involvement in the civil conflict in China", and that American policy would be to not intervene to save the island of Taiwan from conquest by the Communist government of mainland China.[14]
  • U.S. Army Lt. Col. Charles A. Willoughby, who was Chief of Intelligence for General Douglas MacArthur, provided the first reports that North Korea was planning an invasion of South Korea, possibly as early as March.[15]
  • Born:
    • John Manley, Deputy Prime Minister of Canada during 2002 and 2003; in Ottawa. Manley had previously been the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2000 to 2002, and Minister of Industry from 1995 to 2000
    • Charlie Richmond, American inventor and entrepreneur, in Pomona, California

January 6, 1950 (Friday)[edit]

  • The United Kingdom gave diplomatic recognition to the People's Republic of China and the Communist regime of Mao Zedong as the legitimate government of the nation of 460,000,000 people. Norway, Denmark and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) followed suit.[16]
  • Workmen renovating the White House found a small marble box that had been buried underneath a floor slab commemorating the last renovation. The box, which contained three Washington, D.C. newspapers, 27 cents and the label from a bottle of Maryland rye whiskey, had apparently been placed there on December 2, 1902. President Truman ordered that the contents, along with current newspapers, be sealed up again and that the box be reburied "somewhere in the reconstruction now going on."[17]
  • Born:
  • Died:Isaiah Bowman, 71, Canadian-American geographer

January 7, 1950 (Saturday)[edit]

  • A fire at the women's psychiatric ward at Mercy Hospital in Davenport, Iowa, killed 40 patients. All had been trapped inside the locked building. Another 25 were able to escape their locked rooms with the assistance of fire and police, who pulled the iron bars off of their windows.[18]
  • Born:
  • Died:

January 8, 1950 (Sunday)[edit]

January 9, 1950 (Monday)[edit]

  • Nationalist Chinese warships shelled an American freighter, the Flying Arrow, in international waters after the ship had run a blockade of Shanghai.[20]
  • President Truman submitted the annual federal budget, calling for the spending of $42,439,000,000 in the 1952 Fiscal Year. The budget had a deficit of more than five billion dollars, and the accompanying budget message was, at 27,000 words, the "longest presidential message in history".[21]

January 10, 1950 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Yakov Malik, the Soviet Ambassador to the U. N., angrily walked out of a session of the United Nations Security Council, after the ten members voted 8-2 against replacing the Nationalist Chinese delegation with one from the Communist Chinese leaders who had taken control of nearly all of China in October. Although the Nationalist government was confined to the island of Taiwan, it continued to be allowed to speak for, and to exercise the veto power for, the 460 million people in China.[22]
  • Born:Ernie Wasson, American horticulturalist and author of gardening books, in Berkeley, California

January 11, 1950 (Wednesday)[edit]

January 12, 1950 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The death penalty was partially restored in the Soviet Union, after having been abolished on May 26, 1947. It was retroactively applied to "traitors, spies, subversives, and saboteurs" regardless of when the alleged offense occurred.[24]
  • The British submarine Truculent collided with the Swedish oil tanker Divina in the Thames Estuary and sank, killing 64 people.[25] Only 15 crewmen were able to escape. All of them had been in the conning tower of the sub, which had been cruising on the surface of the Thames.[26]
  • U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson delivered his 'Perimeter Speech', outlining the boundary of U.S. security guarantees. South Korea was not included within the area subject to American protection, and would be invaded from North Korea less than six months later.[27]
  • Italy's Prime Minister Alcide de Gasperi resigned along with his entire cabinet.[28]
  • Born:

January 13, 1950 (Friday)[edit]

  • The grounds of the United States consulate in Peiping (now Beijing) were invaded by a group of police and civilian officials, who seized control of the building housing the offices of Consul General O. Edmund Clubb. The U.S. Department of State protested unsuccessfully to the new Communist government of the People's Republic of China, without success.[29]
  • Three days after the UN Security Council refused to let the Communist Chinese government exercise China's veto power, Ambassador Malik left indefinitely, saying that the U.S.S.R. would not participate in the Security Council as Nationalist representative T. F. Taiang remained at the table.[30] The Soviet protest proved to be a blunder, in that the Soviets could have exercised their veto power when the Security Council voted on June 27, 1950, to send its forces to combat the North Korean invasion of South Korea in the Korean War.[31]

January 14, 1950 (Saturday)[edit]

January 15, 1950 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Juho Kusti Paasikivi won re-election as President of Finland, receiving 172 of the 300 electoral votes in a three party race. The popular vote was 868,693 in favor of Paasikivi and 608,314 for the other two candidates.[33]
  • Died:

January 16, 1950 (Monday)[edit]

  • All Soviet labor camps in East Germany were ordered closed by the Soviet Control Commission administrator, General Vassily Chuikov. The estimate of prisoners in the camps was as much as 35,000 and many were subject to transfer to camps in the Soviet Union.[34]
  • Born:Debbie Allen, American choreographer and dancer, in Houston
  • Died:Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, 79, former German arms manufacturer

January 17, 1950 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • A gang of 11 thieves stole more than two million dollars from the headquarters of the Brinks Armored Car Company at 165 Prince Street in Boston, Massachusetts.[35] A group of men, wearing Halloween masks, used keys to walk through five locked doors, walked into the counting room, tied up the employees at gunpoint, filled 14 bags with money and disappeared. The haul from the job, which took a year and a half to plan and 17 minutes to carry out, was $1,218,211.29 in cash and another $1,557,183.83 in checks, money orders and securities. The gang would be indicted in 1956, only five days before the statute of limitations on the robbery would have expired.[36]
  • The famous battleship USS Missourigot stuck at the entrance to Maryland's Chesapeake Bay after running aground on the shoals, and was stuck for two weeks. The ship would finally be freed on February 1, after a salvage effort that cost $225,000.[37]
  • Favored to win by nine points, and ranked by the AP as the #3 college basketball team in the U.S., Long Island University lost to North Carolina State, 55-52, in a game at New York City's Madison Square Garden; an investigation the following year would reveal that LIU players Eddie Gard and Dick Feurtado had been paid $2,000 by gambler Salvatore Sollazo to engage in "point shaving" in order to ensure that LIU lost the game.[38][39] On January 2, Kentucky had narrowly defeated Arkansas, in a game where three players would admit later to accepting $1,000 bribes in return for keeping the winning margin low.[39][40]
  • Born:Luis López Nieves, Puerto Rican novelist
  • Died:Seiichi Hatano, 72, Japanese religious philosopher

January 18, 1950 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The first diplomatic recognition of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, a nationalist movement led by Ho Chi Minh and controlling much of the northern areas of Vietnam, was given by the Communist government of the People's Republic of China, which then began military aid to Ho.[41]
  • A bipartisan U.S. Senate Investigating Committee voted to approve a report rebuking President Truman's military aide, Major General Harry H. Vaughan, for having accepted a corporate gift of seven home freezers for himself and other high-ranking officers.[42]

January 19, 1950 (Thursday)[edit]

  • A request by President Truman, to provide an additional $60 million in economic aid to South Korea, failed to pass in the U.S. House of Representatives, 191-193, in "the first flat setback the President has encountered in his many requests for global recovery funds".[43] By the time a revised bill passed and was put into effect, the Korean War would begin.[44]
  • Pebble in the Sky, the first novel for science fiction author Isaac Asimov, was published. Previously, all of Asimov's printed works had been short stories.[45] One estimate places the number of fiction and non-fiction books written (or, in some cases, edited) by Asimov at 506.[46]
  • The Avro Canada CF-100 Canuck, the only Canadian-designed fighter aircraft to be mass-produced, made its first test flight, with Bill Watterton at the controls.[47]
  • Died: Johnny Mann, American test pilot and cross-country flier, after returning home following an unsuccessful attempt to set a new record for a non-stop flight from Los Angeles to Miami.[48]

January 20, 1950 (Friday)[edit]

  • The first autonomous government for the South American territory of Dutch Guiana, part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands as the "States of Surinam", began as a 21-member legislative assembly convened its first session.[49]
  • Born:Edward Hirsch, American poet and author, in Chicago

January 21, 1950 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Former U.S. State Department official, and accused Communist spy, Alger Hiss was convicted of perjury by a federal jury in New York, based primarily on the testimony of former Communist, and TIME Magazine editor, Whittaker Chambers.[50]
  • The village of Tangasar, located in the Kurdish region of Iran, was buried in an avalanche of ice and snow, killing 44 families.[51]
  • The Cocktail Party, a play by T. S. Eliot, began a successful run on Broadway, and would win the 1950 Tony Award for Best Play.[52]
  • Born:Billy Ocean, Trinidadian-British pop singer, as Leslie Charles in Fyzabad
  • Died:George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair), 46, English novelist who wrote Nineteen Eighty-Four and Animal Farm

January 22, 1950 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Preston Tucker, who had attempted to found his own automobile manufacturing company after World War II and had created the innovative 1948 Tucker Sedan, was acquitted by a jury on all criminal charges. Tucker and several associates had been indicted in June, 1949, on charges of mail fraud, conspiracy, and violation of federal securities laws in the course of attracting investment in his company.[53]
  • Play finishes at the first ever LPGA Tour event, the Tampa Women's Open. Amateur Polly Riley wins by five shots over Louise Suggs.
  • Died:Alan Hale, Sr. (Rufus Mackahan), 57, American film actor who was the sidekick for Errol Flynn

January 23, 1950 (Monday)[edit]

  • Israel's parliament, the Knesset, passed a resolution formally proclaiming that Jerusalem was the nation's capital, although most foreign embassies remained in the original capital at Tel Aviv.[54] Reports stated only that "a majority" of the Knesset had approved, and noted that the Knesset had already moved its meeting place to Jerusalem.[55]
  • APRA Coup d'état: In Indonesia, former Netherlands Army Captain Raymond Westerling led a force of 500 soldiers in an attack on the city of Bandung, seeking to lead a revolution to drive out the government of President Sukarno, and to bring the former Dutch East Indies under the control of the Dutch-sponsored Republic of the United States of Indonesia.[56]
  • The U.S. House of Representatives voted 373-25 on a bill to make Alaska a state, and then approved a similar resolution on Hawaii by voice vote. The bill then moved to the U.S. Senate for consideration.[57]
  • Born:Richard Dean Anderson, American TV actor best known as MacGyver; in Minneapolis
  • Died:

January 24, 1950 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Physicist Klaus Fuchs, a German émigré and physicist who had worked with Britain's atomic research program, confessed to being a spy for the Soviet Union in the course of his fourth interrogation by MI5 investigator William Skardon. The inquiry session took place at Skardon's home near the British atomic research laboratories at Harwell, Oxfordshire in [59] For seven years, he had passed top secret data on U.S. and British nuclear weapons research to the Soviet Union;[60]
  • The new Constitution of India, declaring the Dominion of India a Republic, was approved and signed by the 284 members of India's Constituent Assembly. On the same day, the assembly elected Rajendra Prasad as the nation's first President, and approved the song Jana Gana Mana was made the national anthem for the Republic of India.[61]
  • Before a crowd of 18,000 at Carls Court Arena in London, American boxer Joey Maxim (Giuseppe Antonio Berardinelli) defeated the world light heavyweight champion, England's Freddie Mills in a knockout in the 10th round to win the world title.[62] Four of Mills's teeth were knocked out as well during the fight,[63] and legend has it that three of the teeth were later found embedded in Maxim's boxing gloves.[64]
  • Born:

January 25, 1950 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Minimum wage in the United States was increased from 40 cents an hour to 75 cents an hour, the largest percentage increase (87.5 percent) in the wage ever. The amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act had been signed into law by U.S. President Truman on October 26, 1949.[65] In 2016 terms, an 87.5% increase from $7.25 per hour would be $13.59 per hour.[66]
  • Alger Hiss was sentenced to five years imprisonment at the federal penitentiary in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, following his conviction for perjury. After entering prison on March 22, 1951, he would serve 44 months and would be released on November 27, 1954.[67]
  • Actress Ingrid Bergman filed a "Mexican divorce" against her husband of more than 12 years, Dr. Peter Lindstrom, in order to free her to marry film director Roberto Rossellini.[68]
  • Born:
  • Died:Constancia de la Mora, 43, Spanish Communist author, in an auto accident.[69]

January 26, 1950 (Thursday)[edit]

January 27, 1950 (Friday)[edit]

  • In Washington, the United States signed an individual mutual defense treaties with each of the member nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The U.S. made separate agreements with Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom, where each nation pledged to come to the defense of the other in the event of a military attack.[73]
  • Muroc Field in Kern County, California was renamed in honor of the late test pilot, Glen Edwards (pilot), whose name is now memorialized in Edwards Air Force Base.[74]
  • Born:Derek Acorah, English medium and TV personality, as Derek Johnson in Bootle
  • Died:Augusto d'Halmar, 67, Chilean author

January 28, 1950 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The new Supreme Court of India, whose functions replaced both the Federal Court of India and Britain's Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, was inaugurated. The first Chief Justice of India was Sir Harilal Jekisundas Kania, who had been Chief Justice of the Federal Court, and was one of the eight justices serving.[75]
  • Victor Biaka Boda, a 37 year old member of the French Senate, representing Côte d'Ivoire, at that time a French West African colony, disappeared after his car broke down near the town of Bouaflé. His charred bones would be located ten months later, and according to some sources, the death inquest on March 30, 1953 would conclude that he had been eaten by cannibals.[76]
  • Born:Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain since 2002, in Riffa
  • Died:

January 29, 1950 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The French National Assembly voted 401-193 to approve limited self-government for the State of Vietnam, with the former Emperor Bao Dai designated as "head of state" rather than as a monarch. The French state largely controlled the South, while the Soviet-supported Democratic Republic of Vietnam controlled the North.[77]
  • At a convention in Jacksonville, the Federated Klans of Alabama, the Southern Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and the Association of Carolina Klans united into one Ku Klux Klan organization. Not participating was the Association of Georgia Klans.[78]
  • Born:
  • Died:Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, 64, Sheik of Kuwait since 1921. He was succeeded by his brother, Abdullah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah, who would become the nation's first Emir on Kuwait's independence in 1961.[79]
  • Died: General Sudirman, 34, first Commander-in-Chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces

January 30, 1950 (Monday)[edit]

  • North Korea Chairman, Kim Il-sung, was informed that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin had decided to support Kim's plan for an invasion of South Korea. Stalin provided the message to Kim by way of Soviet envoy Terenti Shtykov, after having met with Chinese leader Mao Zedong in Moscow.[80]
  • A simulator of the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) was first demonstrated by Michael Woodger at the Burlington House in London for the jubilee celebration of the National Physical Laboratory. The first program would be run on May 10, 1950.[81]
  • The NBC TV show Robert Montgomery Presents, a live television dramatic anthology, made its debut with the secondary name Your Lucky Strike Theatre. The first hour-long show was "The Letter", starring Madeleine Carroll.[82]
  • Born:Andrei Bolibrukh, Russian Soviet mathematician, in Moscow (d. 2003)

January 31, 1950 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Harry S. Truman ordered the development of the hydrogen bomb, after the Soviet Union had become the second nation to acquire the secret of the atomic bomb on August 29, 1949.[83] "It is my responsibility as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces," Truman said in a public statement, "to see to it that our country is able defend itself against any possible aggressor. Accordingly, I have directed the Atomic Energy Commission to continue work on all forms of atomic weapons, including the so-called hydrogen or super bomb."[84] The first thermonuclear explosion would take place on November 1, 1952 (a feat which the Soviets would duplicate ten months later on August 21, 1953). On March 1, 1954, the U.S. would detonate the first "H-bomb".[85]
  • The Soviet Union announced recognition of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, led by North Vietnamese Communist Ho Chi Minh.[86]

References[edit]

January 10, 1950: Soviet Union delegation leaves UN Security Council
January 24, 1950: Dr. Fuchs confesses giving the Soviets the means to make the atomic bomb
January 17, 1950: USS Missouri gets stuck
January 31, 1950: U.S. President Truman announces that U.S. will develop the hydrogen bomb
  1. ^"The History of the IPA"
  2. ^St. Petersburg (FL) Times, January 2, 1950, p5
  3. ^Before Present
  4. ^[1]
  5. ^"Ohio State Edges California, 17 to 14", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 3, 1950, p14
  6. ^"Tigers Get Clawed By 35-0 Score", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 3, 1950, p14
  7. ^"Pro-West Party Wins Egypt Control", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 6, 1950, p1
  8. ^Rami Ginat, The Soviet Union and Egypt, 1945-1955 (Frank Cass & Co., 1993) p107
  9. ^"TRUMAN ASKS NEW HIKE IN TAXES", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 4, 1950, p1
  10. ^"New York Sun Sold, Ceases Publication", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 5, 1950, p3
  11. ^"Town And Country Is Incorporated a Village", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, January 5, 1950, p3
  12. ^"Our City's History", City of Town and Country website
  13. ^"Putnam, Publisher, Dies in West at 62", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 5, 1950, p3
  14. ^"TRUMAN REFUSES TO AID FORMOSA", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 6, 1950, p1
  15. ^Gavin Long, Military Commanders: MacArthur (Da Capo Press, 1998) p195
  16. ^"Great Britain Recognizes Chinese Reds", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 7, 1950, p1
  17. ^"Teddy's 1902 Message Uncovered", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 7, 1950, p2
  18. ^"Hospital Fire Kills 38 Locked in Ward", Pittsburgh Press, January 8, 1950, p1' "Cause of Mental Ward Fire That Killed 40 May Never Be Known", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 9, 1950, p2
  19. ^Kwame Botwe-Asamoah, Kwame Nkrumah's Politico-Cultural Thought and Politics: An African-Centered Paradigm for the Second Phase of the African Revolution (Routledge, 2005) p82
  20. ^"U.S. Freighter Hit by Shells Off China", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 9, 1950, p1
  21. ^"TRUMAN SEES $5 BILLION DEFICIT", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 10, 1950, p1
  22. ^"Russians Walk Out of UN Security Council Meeting", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 11, 1950, p1
  23. ^"British Election Set February 23", Spokane (WA) Spokesman-Review, January 11, 1950, p1
  24. ^Harold J. Berman, Soviet Criminal Law and Procedure: The RSFSR Codes (Harvard University Press, 1972) pp34-35
  25. ^"61 KILLED IN SUBMARINE RAMMED, SUNK BY SHIP", Pittsburgh Press, January 13, 1950, p1
  26. ^"Toll of British Sub Put at 65; Hope Given Up for 55 Trapped", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 14, 1950, p3
  27. ^Willard C. Matthias, America's Strategic Blunders: Intelligence Analysis and National Security Policy, 1936-1991 (Pennsylvania State University Press, 2007) p77
  28. ^"Italian Cabinet To Quit Today", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 12, 1950, p4
  29. ^"Reds Seize U.S. Consulate At Peiping", Pittsburgh Press, January 14, 1950, p1
  30. ^"Reds Bolt UN Council Over China", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 14, 1950, p1
  31. ^Miguel Marín-Bosch, Votes in the UN General Assembly (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1998) p6
  32. ^"American Personnel Ordered Out of China By State Department", St. Petersburg (FL) Times, January 15, 1950, p1
  33. ^"Finns Re-elect Juho Paasikivi", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 15, 1950, p2
  34. ^"Reds Liquidate Zone Camps", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 17, 1950, p3
  35. ^"THUGS GET $1,000,000 IN CASH", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 18, 1950, p1
  36. ^Tom Philbin and Michael Philbin, The Killer Book of True Crime: Incredible Stories, Facts and Trivia from the World of Murder and Mayhem (Sourcebooks, 2007) pp16-17
  37. ^William H. Garzke and Robert O. Dulin, Battleships: United States Battleships, 1935-1992 (Naval Institute Press, 1995) p133-134
  38. ^"LIU, St. Johns Both Upset", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 18, 1950, p20
  39. ^ abStanley H. Teitelbaum, Sports Heroes, Fallen Idols (University of Nebraska Press, 2008) pp77-83
  40. ^"Kentucky Extended to Defeat Arkansas", Milwaukee Journal, January 3, 1950, p9
  41. ^Justin Corfield, The History of Vietnam (ABC-CLIO, 2008) p46
  42. ^"Senators Rebuke Vaughan", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 10, 1950, p3
  43. ^"President Is Defeated On Korea", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 20, 1950, p2
  44. ^"Korean Aid Bill of 1949-1950", in The Korean War: A Historical Dictionary, Paul M. Edwards, ed., (Scarecrow Press, 2003) pp131-132
  45. ^Michael White, Isaac Asimov: A Life of the Grand Master of Science Fiction (Da Capo Press, 2005) p125
  46. ^"A List of Isaac Asimov's Books", by Ed Seiler
  47. ^Palmiro Campagna, Requiem for a Giant: A.V. Roe Canada and the Avro Arrow (Dundurn, 2003) pp54-55
  48. ^"Ace Test Pilot Dies in Crash", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 19, 1950, p1
  49. ^"Paramaribo", in Historic Cities of the Americas: An Illustrated Encyclopedia, David Marley, ed. (ABC-CLIO, 2005) p814
  50. ^"Hiss Branded Traitor, Convicted of Perjury", Pittsburgh Press, January 22, 1950, p1
  51. ^"44 Families Lost In Iran Avalanche", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 23, 1950, p1
  52. ^Russell Murphy, Critical Companion to T. S. Eliot: A Literary Reference to His Life and Work (Infobase Publishing, 2009) p104
  53. ^"Tucker, Friends Found Innocent", Spokane Spokesman-Review, January 23, 1950, p1
  54. ^Kāmil Jamīl ʻAsalī, Jerusalem in History (Interlink Books, 1990) p262
  55. ^Tucson Daily Citizen, January 24, 1950, p10
  56. ^M. C. Ricklefs, A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1200 (3rd Ed.) (Stanford University Press, 2002) p285
  57. ^"48 States May Become 50 in 1950", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 24, 1950, p2
  58. ^"Bulgarian Premier Dies", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 24, 1950, p2
  59. ^Christopher Andrew, Defend the Realm: The Authorized History of MI5 (Random House Digital, 2009) pp387-388
  60. ^"Year by Year 1950" – History Channel International
  61. ^K.R. Gupta and Amita Gupta, Concise Encyclopaedia of India (Atlantic Publishers, 2006) p268
  62. ^Nat Fleischer and Sam Andre, An Illustrated History of Boxing (Citadel Press, 2002) p202
  63. ^"Maxim Flattens Mills!", Long Beach (CA) Independent, January 25, 1950) p15
  64. ^Bill Livingston and Greg Brinda, Great Book of Cleveland Sports Lists (Running Press, 2008) p249
  65. ^Willis J. Nordlund, The Quest for a Living Wage: The History of the Federal Minimum Wage Program (Greenwood Press, 1997) p76
  66. ^Jack Rabin, Handbook of Public Personnel Administration (CRC Press, 1994) p358
  67. ^"Alger Hiss, Papers, 1911-1999" Harvard Law School Library
  68. ^"Attorney Files Berman's Divorce Suit in Mexico", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 28, 1950, p2
  69. ^"Mora y Maura, Constancia de la" in The Feminist Encyclopedia Of Spanish Literature (Volume 1), Janet Perez and Maureen Ihrie, eds. (Greenwood Publishing, 2002) p429
  70. ^"U.S. Plane Missing With 44 Aboard", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 28, 1950, p1
  71. ^[2]
  72. ^R. S. Chaurasia, History of Modern India, 1707 A. D. to 2000 A. D (Atlantic Publishers, 2002) pp295-300
  73. ^"Mutual Assistance Act, 1950" in Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: G to M, Edmund Jan Osmańczyk and Anthony Mango, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2003) p1489
  74. ^Nancy Capace, Encyclopedia of California (Somerset Publishers, 1999) p233
  75. ^Mads Tønnesson Andenæs and Duncan Fairgrieve, eds., Judicial Review in International Perspective, Volume 2 (Kluwer Law International, 2000) p383
  76. ^Julia Stewart, Stewart's Quotable Africa (Penguin Books, 2012) quoting John Gunther, Inside Africa (1955) p872)
  77. ^Mark Atwood Lawrence, Assuming the Burden: Europe and the American Commitment to War in Vietnam (University of California Press, 2005) pp259-260
  78. ^"Three Klans Unite, Claiming Happy Family", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 30, 1950, p3
  79. ^Alan Rush, Al-Sabah: History & Genealogy of Kuwait's Ruling Family, 1752-1987 (Garnet & Ithaca Press, 1987) pp40-41
  80. ^Dmitri Volkogonov, Autopsy for an Empire: The Seven Leaders Who Built the Soviet Regime (Simon and Schuster, 1998) pp154-155
  81. ^B. Jack Copeland, Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer (Oxford University Press, 2005) p332
  82. ^William Hawes, Filmed Television Drama, 1952-1958 (McFarland, 2002) p202
  83. ^"TRUMAN GIVES ORDER FOR H-BOMB", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 1, 1950, p1
  84. ^Tamra Orr, The Hydrogen Bomb: Unleashing the Nuclear Age and Arms Race (Rosen Publishing Group, 2004) p27
  85. ^"Nuclear Weapons: Past and Present", by Ralph E. Lapp, in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (June 1970) p104
  86. ^"Soviet Recognizes Red Indo-Chinese", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 31, 1950, p1

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